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Observation of high-energy neutrinos from the Galactic plane

(2023) SCIENCE. 380(6652). p.1338-1343
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Abstract
The origin of high-energy cosmic rays, atomic nuclei that continuously impact Earth's atmosphere, is unknown. Because of deflection by interstellar magnetic fields, cosmic rays produced within the Milky Way arrive at Earth from random directions. However, cosmic rays interact with matter near their sources and during propagation, which produces high-energy neutrinos. We searched for neutrino emission using machine learning techniques applied to 10 years of data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. By comparing diffuse emission models to a background-only hypothesis, we identified neutrino emission from the Galactic plane at the 4.5s level of significance. The signal is consistent with diffuse emission of neutrinos from the Milky Way but could also arise from a population of unresolved point sources.
Keywords
Multidisciplinary, GAMMA-RAY, FERMI-LAT, ICECUBE, EMISSION, FLUX, CONSTRAINTS

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MLA
Abbasi, R., et al. “Observation of High-Energy Neutrinos from the Galactic Plane.” SCIENCE, vol. 380, no. 6652, 2023, pp. 1338–43, doi:10.1126/science.adc9818.
APA
Abbasi, R., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., … IceCube Collaboration, [ missing ]. (2023). Observation of high-energy neutrinos from the Galactic plane. SCIENCE, 380(6652), 1338–1343. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.adc9818
Chicago author-date
Abbasi, R., M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, J. M. Alameddine, et al. 2023. “Observation of High-Energy Neutrinos from the Galactic Plane.” SCIENCE 380 (6652): 1338–43. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.adc9818.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Abbasi, R., M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, J. M. Alameddine, A. A. Alves, N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Athanasiadou, S. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., S. W. Barwick, V. Basu, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K.-H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, J. Beise, C. Bellenghi, S. Benda, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, M. Boddenberg, F. Bontempo, J. Y. Book, J. Borowka, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, B. Brinson, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, M. A. Campana, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, K. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, A. Connolly, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, C. Dappen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado López, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, M. A. DuVernois, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, A. T. Fienberg, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, N. Goehlke, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, T. Grégoire, S. Griswold, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, A. Haungs, K. Helbing, F. Henningsen, E. C. Hettinger, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, K. Hoshina, W. Hou, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J. P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, K. Kin, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, A. Kochocki, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, E. Krupczak, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, Y. Li, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, S. Mancina, I. C. Mariş, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, S. McCarthy, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, Y. Merckx, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, K. Morik, R. Morse, M. Moulai, T. Mukherjee, R. Naab, R. Nagai, R. Nahnhauer, U. Naumann, J. Necker, L. V. Nguyen, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, D. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, Bob Oeyen, A. Olivas, E. O’Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, L. Peters, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, S. Pieper, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, Alessio Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, B. Pries, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, J. Rack-Helleis, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, Z. Rechav, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, R. Reimann, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, Dirk Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, J. Saffer, D. Salazar-Gallegos, P. Sampathkumar, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, N. Shimizu, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, A. Sogaard, D. Soldin, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, T. Stezelberger, B. Stokstad, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, J. Thwaites, S. Tilav, F. Tischbein, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, J. Veitch-Michaelis, Stef Verpoest, C. Walck, W. Wang, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, N. Willey, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, E. Yildizci, S. Yoshida, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, P. Zhelnin, and [ missing ] IceCube Collaboration. 2023. “Observation of High-Energy Neutrinos from the Galactic Plane.” SCIENCE 380 (6652): 1338–1343. doi:10.1126/science.adc9818.
Vancouver
1.
Abbasi R, Ackermann M, Adams J, Aguilar JA, Ahlers M, Ahrens M, et al. Observation of high-energy neutrinos from the Galactic plane. SCIENCE. 2023;380(6652):1338–43.
IEEE
[1]
R. Abbasi et al., “Observation of high-energy neutrinos from the Galactic plane,” SCIENCE, vol. 380, no. 6652, pp. 1338–1343, 2023.
@article{01H819GJS5E5M694ZHGN5J3RXQ,
  abstract     = {{The origin of high-energy cosmic rays, atomic nuclei that continuously impact Earth's atmosphere, is unknown. Because of deflection by interstellar magnetic fields, cosmic rays produced within the Milky Way arrive at Earth from random directions. However, cosmic rays interact with matter near their sources and during propagation, which produces high-energy neutrinos. We searched for neutrino emission using machine learning techniques applied to 10 years of data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. By comparing diffuse emission models to a background-only hypothesis, we identified neutrino emission from the Galactic plane at the 4.5s level of significance. The signal is consistent with diffuse emission of neutrinos from the Milky Way but could also arise from a population of unresolved point sources.}},
  author       = {{Abbasi, R. and Ackermann, M. and Adams, J. and Aguilar, J. A. and Ahlers, M. and Ahrens, M. and Alameddine, J. M. and Alves, A. A. and Amin, N. M. and Andeen, K. and Anderson, T. and Anton, G. and Argüelles, C. and Ashida, Y. and Athanasiadou, S. and Axani, S. and Bai, X. and Balagopal V., A. and Barwick, S. W. and Basu, V. and Baur, S. and Bay, R. and Beatty, J. J. and Becker, K.-H. and Tjus, J. Becker and Beise, J. and Bellenghi, C. and Benda, S. and BenZvi, S. and Berley, D. and Bernardini, E. and Besson, D. Z. and Binder, G. and Bindig, D. and Blaufuss, E. and Blot, S. and Boddenberg, M. and Bontempo, F. and Book, J. Y. and Borowka, J. and Böser, S. and Botner, O. and Böttcher, J. and Bourbeau, E. and Bradascio, F. and Braun, J. and Brinson, B. and Bron, S. and Brostean-Kaiser, J. and Burley, R. T. and Busse, R. S. and Campana, M. A. and Carnie-Bronca, E. G. and Chen, C. and Chen, Z. and Chirkin, D. and Choi, K. and Clark, B. A. and Clark, K. and Classen, L. and Coleman, A. and Collin, G. H. and Connolly, A. and Conrad, J. M. and Coppin, P. and Correa, P. and Cowen, D. F. and Cross, R. and Dappen, C. and Dave, P. and De Clercq, C. and DeLaunay, J. J. and López, D. Delgado and Dembinski, H. and Deoskar, K. and Desai, A. and Desiati, P. and de Vries, K. D. and de Wasseige, G. and DeYoung, T. and Diaz, A. and Díaz-Vélez, J. C. and Dittmer, M. and Dujmovic, H. and Dunkman, M. and DuVernois, M. A. and Ehrhardt, T. and Eller, P. and Engel, R. and Erpenbeck, H. and Evans, J. and Evenson, P. A. and Fan, K. L. and Fazely, A. R. and Fedynitch, A. and Feigl, N. and Fiedlschuster, S. and Fienberg, A. T. and Finley, C. and Fischer, L. and Fox, D. and Franckowiak, A. and Friedman, E. and Fritz, A. and Fürst, P. and Gaisser, T. K. and Gallagher, J. and Ganster, E. and Garcia, A. and Garrappa, S. and Gerhardt, L. and Ghadimi, A. and Glaser, C. and Glauch, T. and Glüsenkamp, T. and Goehlke, N. and Goldschmidt, A. and Gonzalez, J. G. and Goswami, S. and Grant, D. and Grégoire, T. and Griswold, S. and Günther, C. and Gutjahr, P. and Haack, C. and Hallgren, A. and Halliday, R. and Halve, L. and Halzen, F. and Minh, M. Ha and Hanson, K. and Hardin, J. and Harnisch, A. A. and Haungs, A. and Helbing, K. and Henningsen, F. and Hettinger, E. C. and Hickford, S. and Hignight, J. and Hill, C. and Hill, G. C. and Hoffman, K. D. and Hoshina, K. and Hou, W. and Huang, F. and Huber, M. and Huber, T. and Hultqvist, K. and Hünnefeld, M. and Hussain, R. and Hymon, K. and In, S. and Iovine, N. and Ishihara, A. and Jansson, M. and Japaridze, G. S. and Jeong, M. and Jin, M. and Jones, B. J. P. and Kang, D. and Kang, W. and Kang, X. and Kappes, A. and Kappesser, D. and Kardum, L. and Karg, T. and Karl, M. and Karle, A. and Katz, U. and Kauer, M. and Kellermann, M. and Kelley, J. L. and Kheirandish, A. and Kin, K. and Kiryluk, J. and Klein, S. R. and Kochocki, A. and Koirala, R. and Kolanoski, H. and Kontrimas, T. and Köpke, L. and Kopper, C. and Kopper, S. and Koskinen, D. J. and Koundal, P. and Kovacevich, M. and Kowalski, M. and Kozynets, T. and Krupczak, E. and Kun, E. and Kurahashi, N. and Lad, N. and Gualda, C. Lagunas and Lanfranchi, J. L. and Larson, M. J. and Lauber, F. and Lazar, J. P. and Lee, J. W. and Leonard, K. and Leszczyńska, A. and Li, Y. and Lincetto, M. and Liu, Q. R. and Liubarska, M. and Lohfink, E. and Mariscal, C. J. Lozano and Lu, L. and Lucarelli, F. and Ludwig, A. and Luszczak, W. and Lyu, Y. and Ma, W. Y. and Madsen, J. and Mahn, K. B. M. and Makino, Y. and Mancina, S. and Mariş, I. C. and Martinez-Soler, I. and Maruyama, R. and McCarthy, S. and McElroy, T. and McNally, F. and Mead, J. V. and Meagher, K. and Mechbal, S. and Medina, A. and Meier, M. and Meighen-Berger, S. and Merckx, Y. and Micallef, J. and Mockler, D. and Montaruli, T. and Moore, R. W. and Morik, K. and Morse, R. and Moulai, M. and Mukherjee, T. and Naab, R. and Nagai, R. and Nahnhauer, R. and Naumann, U. and Necker, J. and Nguyen, L. V. and Niederhausen, H. and Nisa, M. U. and Nowicki, S. C. and Nygren, D. and Pollmann, A. Obertacke and Oehler, M. and Oeyen, Bob and Olivas, A. and O'Sullivan, E. and Pandya, H. and Pankova, D. V. and Park, N. and Parker, G. K. and Paudel, E. N. and Paul, L. and de los Heros, C. Pérez and Peters, L. and Peterson, J. and Philippen, S. and Pieper, S. and Pizzuto, A. and Plum, M. and Popovych, Y. and Porcelli, Alessio and Rodriguez, M. Prado and Pries, B. and Przybylski, G. T. and Raab, C. and Rack-Helleis, J. and Raissi, A. and Rameez, M. and Rawlins, K. and Rea, I. C. and Rechav, Z. and Rehman, A. and Reichherzer, P. and Reimann, R. and Renzi, G. and Resconi, E. and Reusch, S. and Rhode, W. and Richman, M. and Riedel, B. and Roberts, E. J. and Robertson, S. and Roellinghoff, G. and Rongen, M. and Rott, C. and Ruhe, T. and Ryckbosch, Dirk and Cantu, D. Rysewyk and Safa, I. and Saffer, J. and Salazar-Gallegos, D. and Sampathkumar, P. and Herrera, S. E. Sanchez and Sandrock, A. and Santander, M. and Sarkar, S. and Sarkar, S. and Satalecka, K. and Schaufel, M. and Schieler, H. and Schindler, S. and Schmidt, T. and Schneider, A. and Schneider, J. and Schröder, F. G. and Schumacher, L. and Schwefer, G. and Sclafani, S. and Seckel, D. and Seunarine, S. and Sharma, A. and Shefali, S. and Shimizu, N. and Silva, M. and Skrzypek, B. and Smithers, B. and Snihur, R. and Soedingrekso, J. and Sogaard, A. and Soldin, D. and Spannfellner, C. and Spiczak, G. M. and Spiering, C. and Stamatikos, M. and Stanev, T. and Stein, R. and Stettner, J. and Stezelberger, T. and Stokstad, B. and Stürwald, T. and Stuttard, T. and Sullivan, G. W. and Taboada, I. and Ter-Antonyan, S. and Thwaites, J. and Tilav, S. and Tischbein, F. and Tollefson, K. and Tönnis, C. and Toscano, S. and Tosi, D. and Trettin, A. and Tselengidou, M. and Tung, C. F. and Turcati, A. and Turcotte, R. and Turley, C. F. and Twagirayezu, J. P. and Ty, B. and Elorrieta, M. A. Unland and Valtonen-Mattila, N. and Vandenbroucke, J. and van Eijndhoven, N. and Vannerom, D. and van Santen, J. and Veitch-Michaelis, J. and Verpoest, Stef and Walck, C. and Wang, W. and Watson, T. B. and Weaver, C. and Weigel, P. and Weindl, A. and Weiss, M. J. and Weldert, J. and Wendt, C. and Werthebach, J. and Weyrauch, M. and Whitehorn, N. and Wiebusch, C. H. and Willey, N. and Williams, D. R. and Wolf, M. and Wrede, G. and Wulff, J. and Xu, X. W. and Yanez, J. P. and Yildizci, E. and Yoshida, S. and Yu, S. and Yuan, T. and Zhang, Z. and Zhelnin, P. and IceCube Collaboration, [ missing ]}},
  issn         = {{0036-8075}},
  journal      = {{SCIENCE}},
  keywords     = {{Multidisciplinary,GAMMA-RAY,FERMI-LAT,ICECUBE,EMISSION,FLUX,CONSTRAINTS}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{6652}},
  pages        = {{1338--1343}},
  title        = {{Observation of high-energy neutrinos from the Galactic plane}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1126/science.adc9818}},
  volume       = {{380}},
  year         = {{2023}},
}

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