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Online Contingent Attention Training (OCAT) : transfer effects to cognitive biases, rumination, and anxiety symptoms from two proof-of-principle studies

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Abstract
The aim of the present research was to develop and test the efficacy of a novel online contingent attention training (i.e., OCAT) to modify attention and interpretation biases, improve emotion regulation, and reduce emotional symptom levels in the face of major stressors. Two proof-of-principle studies were carried out. In study 1, 64 undergraduates who were about to start a major stressful period (i.e., final exams) were randomized to undergo 10 days of active OCAT or a sham-control training. Emotion regulation (habitual use of rumination and reappraisal) and symptom levels (depression and anxiety) were assessed before and after the intervention. In study 2, the same 2 x 2 mixed design was used with 58 individuals from the general population undergoing a major stressful situation (the lockdown period at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020). In both studies, the OCAT group showed significant improvements on attention towards negative information and interpretation biases in comparison to the sham-control group. Additionally, changes in cognitive biases transferred to reductions of participants' use of rumination and anxiety symptom levels. These results show preliminary evidence regarding the efficacy of the OCAT to target attention and interpretation biases as well as to improve emotion regulation processes and to buffer against the effects of major stressors.
Keywords
Attention bias modification, Interpretation bias modification, Smartphone app, Emotion regulation, Psychological symptoms, COMMON MENTAL-DISORDERS, INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES, EMOTION REGULATION, EYE-TRACKING, DEPRESSION, STRESS, METAANALYSIS, DISENGAGEMENT, VULNERABILITY, PREVALENCE

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MLA
Blanco, Ivan, et al. “Online Contingent Attention Training (OCAT) : Transfer Effects to Cognitive Biases, Rumination, and Anxiety Symptoms from Two Proof-of-Principle Studies.” COGNITIVE RESEARCH-PRINCIPLES AND IMPLICATIONS, vol. 8, no. 1, 2023, doi:10.1186/s41235-023-00480-3.
APA
Blanco, I., Boemo, T., Martin-Garcia, O., Koster, E., De Raedt, R., & Sanchez Lopez, A. (2023). Online Contingent Attention Training (OCAT) : transfer effects to cognitive biases, rumination, and anxiety symptoms from two proof-of-principle studies. COGNITIVE RESEARCH-PRINCIPLES AND IMPLICATIONS, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41235-023-00480-3
Chicago author-date
Blanco, Ivan, Teresa Boemo, Oscar Martin-Garcia, Ernst Koster, Rudi De Raedt, and Alvaro Sanchez Lopez. 2023. “Online Contingent Attention Training (OCAT) : Transfer Effects to Cognitive Biases, Rumination, and Anxiety Symptoms from Two Proof-of-Principle Studies.” COGNITIVE RESEARCH-PRINCIPLES AND IMPLICATIONS 8 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41235-023-00480-3.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Blanco, Ivan, Teresa Boemo, Oscar Martin-Garcia, Ernst Koster, Rudi De Raedt, and Alvaro Sanchez Lopez. 2023. “Online Contingent Attention Training (OCAT) : Transfer Effects to Cognitive Biases, Rumination, and Anxiety Symptoms from Two Proof-of-Principle Studies.” COGNITIVE RESEARCH-PRINCIPLES AND IMPLICATIONS 8 (1). doi:10.1186/s41235-023-00480-3.
Vancouver
1.
Blanco I, Boemo T, Martin-Garcia O, Koster E, De Raedt R, Sanchez Lopez A. Online Contingent Attention Training (OCAT) : transfer effects to cognitive biases, rumination, and anxiety symptoms from two proof-of-principle studies. COGNITIVE RESEARCH-PRINCIPLES AND IMPLICATIONS. 2023;8(1).
IEEE
[1]
I. Blanco, T. Boemo, O. Martin-Garcia, E. Koster, R. De Raedt, and A. Sanchez Lopez, “Online Contingent Attention Training (OCAT) : transfer effects to cognitive biases, rumination, and anxiety symptoms from two proof-of-principle studies,” COGNITIVE RESEARCH-PRINCIPLES AND IMPLICATIONS, vol. 8, no. 1, 2023.
@article{01H2Z2HEG8D9RYNH7HYWD0GN8J,
  abstract     = {{The aim of the present research was to develop and test the efficacy of a novel online contingent attention training (i.e., OCAT) to modify attention and interpretation biases, improve emotion regulation, and reduce emotional symptom levels in the face of major stressors. Two proof-of-principle studies were carried out. In study 1, 64 undergraduates who were about to start a major stressful period (i.e., final exams) were randomized to undergo 10 days of active OCAT or a sham-control training. Emotion regulation (habitual use of rumination and reappraisal) and symptom levels (depression and anxiety) were assessed before and after the intervention. In study 2, the same 2 x 2 mixed design was used with 58 individuals from the general population undergoing a major stressful situation (the lockdown period at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020). In both studies, the OCAT group showed significant improvements on attention towards negative information and interpretation biases in comparison to the sham-control group. Additionally, changes in cognitive biases transferred to reductions of participants' use of rumination and anxiety symptom levels. These results show preliminary evidence regarding the efficacy of the OCAT to target attention and interpretation biases as well as to improve emotion regulation processes and to buffer against the effects of major stressors.}},
  articleno    = {{28}},
  author       = {{Blanco, Ivan and  Boemo, Teresa and  Martin-Garcia, Oscar and Koster, Ernst and De Raedt, Rudi and Sanchez Lopez, Alvaro}},
  issn         = {{2365-7464}},
  journal      = {{COGNITIVE RESEARCH-PRINCIPLES AND IMPLICATIONS}},
  keywords     = {{Attention bias modification,Interpretation bias modification,Smartphone app,Emotion regulation,Psychological symptoms,COMMON MENTAL-DISORDERS,INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES,EMOTION REGULATION,EYE-TRACKING,DEPRESSION,STRESS,METAANALYSIS,DISENGAGEMENT,VULNERABILITY,PREVALENCE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{19}},
  title        = {{Online Contingent Attention Training (OCAT) : transfer effects to cognitive biases, rumination, and anxiety symptoms from two proof-of-principle studies}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1186/s41235-023-00480-3}},
  volume       = {{8}},
  year         = {{2023}},
}

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