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Long-term phytoplankton dynamics in the Zeeschelde estuary (Belgium) are driven by the interactive effects of de-eutrophication, altered hydrodynam- ics and extreme weather events

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Abstract
We studied how changing human impacts affected phytoplankton dynamics in the freshwater and brackish tidal reaches of the Zeeschelde estuary (Belgium) between 2002 and 2018. Until the early 2000s, the Zeeschelde was heavily polluted due to high wastewater discharges. By 2008, water quality had improved, resulting in lower nutrient concentrations and higher oxygen levels. Since 2009, however, increased dredging activities resulted in altered hydro-dynamics and increased suspended sediment concentration. The combined effects of these environmental changes were reflected in three marked transitions in phytoplankton community composition. Assemblages were dominated by Thalassiosirales and green algae (especially Scenedesmaceae) until 2003. The period 2003-2011 was characterized by the wax and wane of the centric diatoms Actinocyclus and Aulacoseira, while in the period 2012-2018 Thalassiosirales and Cyanobacteria became dominant, the latter mainly imported from the tributaries. Phytoplankton biomass increased sharply in 2003, after which there was a gradual decline until 2018. By 2018, the timing of the growing season had advanced with about one month compared to the start of the study, probably as a consequence of climate warming and intensified zooplankton grazing pressure. Our study shows that de-eutrophication (during the 2000s) and morphological interventions in the estuary (in the 2010s) were dominant drivers of phytoplankton dy-namics but that the main shifts in community composition were triggered by extreme weather events, suggesting sig-nificant resistance of autochthonous communities to gradual changes in the environment.
Keywords
Turbid estuary, Schelde, Diatom, Green algae, Cyanobacteria, Monitoring, SCHELDT ESTUARY, WATER-QUALITY, EURYTEMORA-AFFINIS, COASTAL WATERS, COMMUNITY, NETHERLANDS, BLOOM, RIVER, ZOOPLANKTON, ASSEMBLAGES

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Citation

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MLA
Amadei Martínez, Luz, et al. “Long-Term Phytoplankton Dynamics in the Zeeschelde Estuary (Belgium) Are Driven by the Interactive Effects of de-Eutrophication, Altered Hydrodynam- Ics and Extreme Weather Events.” SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 860, 2023, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.160402.
APA
Amadei Martínez, L., Sabbe, K., Dasseville, R., Daveloose, I., Verstraete, T., D’hondt, S., … Vyverman, W. (2023). Long-term phytoplankton dynamics in the Zeeschelde estuary (Belgium) are driven by the interactive effects of de-eutrophication, altered hydrodynam- ics and extreme weather events. SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 860. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.160402
Chicago author-date
Amadei Martínez, Luz, Koen Sabbe, Renaat Dasseville, Ilse Daveloose, Tine Verstraete, Sofie D’hondt, Frédéric Azémar, et al. 2023. “Long-Term Phytoplankton Dynamics in the Zeeschelde Estuary (Belgium) Are Driven by the Interactive Effects of de-Eutrophication, Altered Hydrodynam- Ics and Extreme Weather Events.” SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT 860. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.160402.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Amadei Martínez, Luz, Koen Sabbe, Renaat Dasseville, Ilse Daveloose, Tine Verstraete, Sofie D’hondt, Frédéric Azémar, Akoko Claudine Sossou, Micky Tackx, Tom Maris, Patrick Meire, and Wim Vyverman. 2023. “Long-Term Phytoplankton Dynamics in the Zeeschelde Estuary (Belgium) Are Driven by the Interactive Effects of de-Eutrophication, Altered Hydrodynam- Ics and Extreme Weather Events.” SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT 860. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.160402.
Vancouver
1.
Amadei Martínez L, Sabbe K, Dasseville R, Daveloose I, Verstraete T, D’hondt S, et al. Long-term phytoplankton dynamics in the Zeeschelde estuary (Belgium) are driven by the interactive effects of de-eutrophication, altered hydrodynam- ics and extreme weather events. SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. 2023;860.
IEEE
[1]
L. Amadei Martínez et al., “Long-term phytoplankton dynamics in the Zeeschelde estuary (Belgium) are driven by the interactive effects of de-eutrophication, altered hydrodynam- ics and extreme weather events,” SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 860, 2023.
@article{01H2SWDDQRTS8MQ4M7MGBR20E1,
  abstract     = {{We studied how changing human impacts affected phytoplankton dynamics in the freshwater and brackish tidal reaches of the Zeeschelde estuary (Belgium) between 2002 and 2018. Until the early 2000s, the Zeeschelde was heavily polluted due to high wastewater discharges. By 2008, water quality had improved, resulting in lower nutrient concentrations and higher oxygen levels. Since 2009, however, increased dredging activities resulted in altered hydro-dynamics and increased suspended sediment concentration. The combined effects of these environmental changes were reflected in three marked transitions in phytoplankton community composition. Assemblages were dominated by Thalassiosirales and green algae (especially Scenedesmaceae) until 2003. The period 2003-2011 was characterized by the wax and wane of the centric diatoms Actinocyclus and Aulacoseira, while in the period 2012-2018 Thalassiosirales and Cyanobacteria became dominant, the latter mainly imported from the tributaries. Phytoplankton biomass increased sharply in 2003, after which there was a gradual decline until 2018. By 2018, the timing of the growing season had advanced with about one month compared to the start of the study, probably as a consequence of climate warming and intensified zooplankton grazing pressure. Our study shows that de-eutrophication (during the 2000s) and morphological interventions in the estuary (in the 2010s) were dominant drivers of phytoplankton dy-namics but that the main shifts in community composition were triggered by extreme weather events, suggesting sig-nificant resistance of autochthonous communities to gradual changes in the environment.}},
  articleno    = {{160402}},
  author       = {{Amadei Martínez, Luz and Sabbe, Koen and Dasseville, Renaat and Daveloose, Ilse and Verstraete, Tine and D'hondt, Sofie and Azémar, Frédéric and  Sossou, Akoko Claudine and  Tackx, Micky and  Maris, Tom and  Meire, Patrick and Vyverman, Wim}},
  issn         = {{0048-9697}},
  journal      = {{SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT}},
  keywords     = {{Turbid estuary,Schelde,Diatom,Green algae,Cyanobacteria,Monitoring,SCHELDT ESTUARY,WATER-QUALITY,EURYTEMORA-AFFINIS,COASTAL WATERS,COMMUNITY,NETHERLANDS,BLOOM,RIVER,ZOOPLANKTON,ASSEMBLAGES}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{13}},
  title        = {{Long-term phytoplankton dynamics in the Zeeschelde estuary (Belgium) are driven by the interactive effects of de-eutrophication, altered hydrodynam- ics and extreme weather events}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.160402}},
  volume       = {{860}},
  year         = {{2023}},
}

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