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Time and sequence of the replacement of the deciduous by the permanent dentition in dogs and its applicability for age estimation

Martine Van Den Broeck (UGent) , Lobke De Bels (UGent) , Luc Duchateau (UGent) and Pieter Cornillie (UGent)
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Abstract
This study investigated the influence of several covariates on the time and sequence of permanent dentition emergence following exfoliation of the deciduous teeth in puppies. The aim was to determine whether the emergence of permanent dentition can be used to assess whether a puppy that is traded across borders in the EU has reached the legally required minimum age of 15 weeks. The events were evaluated in a longitudinal study, with some cross-sectional observations, of 440 puppies belonging to 82 breeds. No significant differences were found between the left and right sides of a puppy's dentition nor between male and female puppies. Breed size and skull type had a significant impact: both the appearance and the completion of tooth eruption occurred considerably later in small or toy breeds and brachycephalic skull type breeds. The sequence of emergence differed little between maxillary or mandibular quadrants or between breeds. The first emerging elements were the maxillary first premolars or first incisors or the mandibular first incisors. The emergence of a permanent tooth usually occurred within 3 days before or after exfoliation of its precursor, except for the canines, which demonstrated a wider tooth replacement interval. This study presents standards for age assessment based on the emergence of permanent dentition for breeds of different sizes, using median ages or cumulative emergence percentages. However, the legal age determination of puppies with an assumed age of 15 weeks cannot be performed based on permanent dentition emergence, as this occurred at a later age in a large proportion of dogs (at least 95%) in our studied population. The probability of being at least 15 weeks old when at least one maxillary tooth has emerged was at least 72.25%, depending on breed size.
Keywords
age estimation, deciduous dentition, dog, eruption, exfoliation, permanent dentition, ERUPTION CHRONOLOGY, ABNORMALITIES, LEGAL

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MLA
Van Den Broeck, Martine, et al. “Time and Sequence of the Replacement of the Deciduous by the Permanent Dentition in Dogs and Its Applicability for Age Estimation.” ANATOMIA HISTOLOGIA EMBRYOLOGIA, vol. 52, no. 3, Wiley, 2023, pp. 460–89, doi:10.1111/ahe.12904.
APA
Van Den Broeck, M., De Bels, L., Duchateau, L., & Cornillie, P. (2023). Time and sequence of the replacement of the deciduous by the permanent dentition in dogs and its applicability for age estimation. ANATOMIA HISTOLOGIA EMBRYOLOGIA, 52(3), 460–489. https://doi.org/10.1111/ahe.12904
Chicago author-date
Van Den Broeck, Martine, Lobke De Bels, Luc Duchateau, and Pieter Cornillie. 2023. “Time and Sequence of the Replacement of the Deciduous by the Permanent Dentition in Dogs and Its Applicability for Age Estimation.” ANATOMIA HISTOLOGIA EMBRYOLOGIA 52 (3): 460–89. https://doi.org/10.1111/ahe.12904.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van Den Broeck, Martine, Lobke De Bels, Luc Duchateau, and Pieter Cornillie. 2023. “Time and Sequence of the Replacement of the Deciduous by the Permanent Dentition in Dogs and Its Applicability for Age Estimation.” ANATOMIA HISTOLOGIA EMBRYOLOGIA 52 (3): 460–489. doi:10.1111/ahe.12904.
Vancouver
1.
Van Den Broeck M, De Bels L, Duchateau L, Cornillie P. Time and sequence of the replacement of the deciduous by the permanent dentition in dogs and its applicability for age estimation. ANATOMIA HISTOLOGIA EMBRYOLOGIA. 2023;52(3):460–89.
IEEE
[1]
M. Van Den Broeck, L. De Bels, L. Duchateau, and P. Cornillie, “Time and sequence of the replacement of the deciduous by the permanent dentition in dogs and its applicability for age estimation,” ANATOMIA HISTOLOGIA EMBRYOLOGIA, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 460–489, 2023.
@article{01GWA4AMCFBTN9FCG5Y5P41WRE,
  abstract     = {{This study investigated the influence of several covariates on the time and sequence of permanent dentition emergence following exfoliation of the deciduous teeth in puppies. The aim was to determine whether the emergence of permanent dentition can be used to assess whether a puppy that is traded across borders in the EU has reached the legally required minimum age of 15 weeks. The events were evaluated in a longitudinal study, with some cross-sectional observations, of 440 puppies belonging to 82 breeds. No significant differences were found between the left and right sides of a puppy's dentition nor between male and female puppies. Breed size and skull type had a significant impact: both the appearance and the completion of tooth eruption occurred considerably later in small or toy breeds and brachycephalic skull type breeds. The sequence of emergence differed little between maxillary or mandibular quadrants or between breeds. The first emerging elements were the maxillary first premolars or first incisors or the mandibular first incisors. The emergence of a permanent tooth usually occurred within 3 days before or after exfoliation of its precursor, except for the canines, which demonstrated a wider tooth replacement interval. This study presents standards for age assessment based on the emergence of permanent dentition for breeds of different sizes, using median ages or cumulative emergence percentages. However, the legal age determination of puppies with an assumed age of 15 weeks cannot be performed based on permanent dentition emergence, as this occurred at a later age in a large proportion of dogs (at least 95%) in our studied population. The probability of being at least 15 weeks old when at least one maxillary tooth has emerged was at least 72.25%, depending on breed size.}},
  author       = {{Van Den Broeck, Martine and De Bels, Lobke and Duchateau, Luc and Cornillie, Pieter}},
  issn         = {{0340-2096}},
  journal      = {{ANATOMIA HISTOLOGIA EMBRYOLOGIA}},
  keywords     = {{age estimation,deciduous dentition,dog,eruption,exfoliation,permanent dentition,ERUPTION CHRONOLOGY,ABNORMALITIES,LEGAL}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{3}},
  pages        = {{460--489}},
  publisher    = {{Wiley}},
  title        = {{Time and sequence of the replacement of the deciduous by the permanent dentition in dogs and its applicability for age estimation}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1111/ahe.12904}},
  volume       = {{52}},
  year         = {{2023}},
}

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