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Knockdown of the Halloween genes spook, shadow and shade influences oocyte development, egg shape, oviposition and hatching in the desert locust

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Abstract
Ecdysteroids are widely investigated for their role during the molting cascade in insects; however, they are also involved in the development of the female reproductive system. Ecdysteroids are synthesized from cholesterol, which is further converted via a series of enzymatic steps into the main molting hormone, 20-hydoxyecdysone. Most of these biosynthetic conversion steps involve the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) hydroxylases, which are encoded by the Halloween genes. Three of these genes, spook (spo), phantom (phm) and shade (shd), were previously characterized in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. Based on recent sequencing data, we have now identified the sequences of disembodied (dib) and shadow (sad), for which we also analyzed spatiotemporal expression profiles using qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we investigated the possible role(s) of five different Halloween genes in the oogenesis process by means of RNA interference mediated knockdown experiments. Our results showed that depleting the expression of SchgrSpo, SchgrSad and SchgrShd had a significant impact on oocyte development, oviposition and hatching of the eggs. Moreover, the shape of the growing oocytes, as well as the deposited eggs, was very drastically altered by the experimental treatments. Consequently, it can be proposed that these three enzymes play an important role in oogenesis.
Keywords
Inorganic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Computer Science Applications, Spectroscopy, Molecular Biology, General Medicine, Catalysis, reproduction, oogenesis, insect, hormone, hemimetabola, ecdysteriod, ecdysone, biosynthesis

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MLA
Schellens, Sam, et al. “Knockdown of the Halloween Genes Spook, Shadow and Shade Influences Oocyte Development, Egg Shape, Oviposition and Hatching in the Desert Locust.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, vol. 23, no. 16, MDPI AG, 2022, doi:10.3390/ijms23169232.
APA
Schellens, S., Lenaerts, C., Pérez Baca, M. del R., Cools, D., Peeters, P., Marchal, E., & Vanden Broeck, J. (2022). Knockdown of the Halloween genes spook, shadow and shade influences oocyte development, egg shape, oviposition and hatching in the desert locust. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, 23(16). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23169232
Chicago author-date
Schellens, Sam, Cynthia Lenaerts, Maria del Rocio Pérez Baca, Dorien Cools, Paulien Peeters, Elisabeth Marchal, and Jozef Vanden Broeck. 2022. “Knockdown of the Halloween Genes Spook, Shadow and Shade Influences Oocyte Development, Egg Shape, Oviposition and Hatching in the Desert Locust.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES 23 (16). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23169232.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Schellens, Sam, Cynthia Lenaerts, Maria del Rocio Pérez Baca, Dorien Cools, Paulien Peeters, Elisabeth Marchal, and Jozef Vanden Broeck. 2022. “Knockdown of the Halloween Genes Spook, Shadow and Shade Influences Oocyte Development, Egg Shape, Oviposition and Hatching in the Desert Locust.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES 23 (16). doi:10.3390/ijms23169232.
Vancouver
1.
Schellens S, Lenaerts C, Pérez Baca M del R, Cools D, Peeters P, Marchal E, et al. Knockdown of the Halloween genes spook, shadow and shade influences oocyte development, egg shape, oviposition and hatching in the desert locust. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. 2022;23(16).
IEEE
[1]
S. Schellens et al., “Knockdown of the Halloween genes spook, shadow and shade influences oocyte development, egg shape, oviposition and hatching in the desert locust,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, vol. 23, no. 16, 2022.
@article{01GV0AK42GNTS3PPQ0NY15MXKN,
  abstract     = {{Ecdysteroids are widely investigated for their role during the molting cascade in insects; however, they are also involved in the development of the female reproductive system. Ecdysteroids are synthesized from cholesterol, which is further converted via a series of enzymatic steps into the main molting hormone, 20-hydoxyecdysone. Most of these biosynthetic conversion steps involve the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) hydroxylases, which are encoded by the Halloween genes. Three of these genes, spook (spo), phantom (phm) and shade (shd), were previously characterized in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. Based on recent sequencing data, we have now identified the sequences of disembodied (dib) and shadow (sad), for which we also analyzed spatiotemporal expression profiles using qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we investigated the possible role(s) of five different Halloween genes in the oogenesis process by means of RNA interference mediated knockdown experiments. Our results showed that depleting the expression of SchgrSpo, SchgrSad and SchgrShd had a significant impact on oocyte development, oviposition and hatching of the eggs. Moreover, the shape of the growing oocytes, as well as the deposited eggs, was very drastically altered by the experimental treatments. Consequently, it can be proposed that these three enzymes play an important role in oogenesis.}},
  articleno    = {{9232}},
  author       = {{Schellens, Sam and Lenaerts, Cynthia and Pérez Baca, Maria del Rocio and Cools, Dorien and Peeters, Paulien and Marchal, Elisabeth and Vanden Broeck, Jozef}},
  issn         = {{1422-0067}},
  journal      = {{INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES}},
  keywords     = {{Inorganic Chemistry,Organic Chemistry,Physical and Theoretical Chemistry,Computer Science Applications,Spectroscopy,Molecular Biology,General Medicine,Catalysis,reproduction,oogenesis,insect,hormone,hemimetabola,ecdysteriod,ecdysone,biosynthesis}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{16}},
  pages        = {{17}},
  publisher    = {{MDPI AG}},
  title        = {{Knockdown of the Halloween genes spook, shadow and shade influences oocyte development, egg shape, oviposition and hatching in the desert locust}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23169232}},
  volume       = {{23}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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