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No effect of acute balenine supplementation on maximal and submaximal exercise performance in recreational cyclists

Sarah de Jager (UGent) , Stefaan Van Damme (UGent) , Siegrid De Baere (UGent) , Siska Croubels (UGent) , Ralf Jäger, Martin Purpura, Eline Lievens (UGent) , Jan Bourgois (UGent) and Wim Derave (UGent)
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Abstract
Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) and its methylated analogues anserine and balenine are highly concentrated endogenous dipeptides in mammalian skeletal muscle that are implicated in exercise performance. Balenine has a much better bioavailability and stability in human circulation upon acute ingestion, compared to carnosine and anserine. Therefore, ergogenic effects observed with acute carnosine and anserine supplementation may be even more pronounced with balenine. This study investigated whether acute balenine supplementation improves physical performance in four maximal and submaximal exercise modalities. A total of 20 healthy, active volunteers (14 males; six females) performed cycling sprints, maximal isometric contractions, a 4-km TT and 20-km TT following either preexercise placebo or 10 mg/kg of balenine ingestion. Physical, as well as mental performance, along with acid-base balance and glucose concentration were assessed. Balenine was unable to augment peak power (p = .3553), peak torque (p = .3169), time to complete the 4 km (p = .8566), nor 20 km time trial (p = .2660). None of the performances were correlated with plasma balenine or CN1 enzyme activity. In addition, no effect on pH, bicarbonate, and lactate was observed. Also, the supplement did not affect mental performance. In contrast, glucose remained higher during and after the 20 km time trial following balenine ingestion. In conclusion, these results overall indicate that the functionality of balenine does not fully resemble that of carnosine and anserine, since it was unable to elicit performance improvements with similar and even higher plasma concentrations.
Keywords
Nutrition and Dietetics, Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, General Medicine, Medicine (miscellaneous), Exercise physiology, (sports) nutrition, histidine-containing dipeptides, cycling time trial, ergogenic supplement, balenine ingestion

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MLA
de Jager, Sarah, et al. “No Effect of Acute Balenine Supplementation on Maximal and Submaximal Exercise Performance in Recreational Cyclists.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORT NUTRITION AND EXERCISE METABOLISM, vol. 33, no. 2, 2023, pp. 84–92, doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2022-0115.
APA
de Jager, S., Van Damme, S., De Baere, S., Croubels, S., Jäger, R., Purpura, M., … Derave, W. (2023). No effect of acute balenine supplementation on maximal and submaximal exercise performance in recreational cyclists. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORT NUTRITION AND EXERCISE METABOLISM, 33(2), 84–92. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2022-0115
Chicago author-date
Jager, Sarah de, Stefaan Van Damme, Siegrid De Baere, Siska Croubels, Ralf Jäger, Martin Purpura, Eline Lievens, Jan Bourgois, and Wim Derave. 2023. “No Effect of Acute Balenine Supplementation on Maximal and Submaximal Exercise Performance in Recreational Cyclists.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORT NUTRITION AND EXERCISE METABOLISM 33 (2): 84–92. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2022-0115.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
de Jager, Sarah, Stefaan Van Damme, Siegrid De Baere, Siska Croubels, Ralf Jäger, Martin Purpura, Eline Lievens, Jan Bourgois, and Wim Derave. 2023. “No Effect of Acute Balenine Supplementation on Maximal and Submaximal Exercise Performance in Recreational Cyclists.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORT NUTRITION AND EXERCISE METABOLISM 33 (2): 84–92. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2022-0115.
Vancouver
1.
de Jager S, Van Damme S, De Baere S, Croubels S, Jäger R, Purpura M, et al. No effect of acute balenine supplementation on maximal and submaximal exercise performance in recreational cyclists. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORT NUTRITION AND EXERCISE METABOLISM. 2023;33(2):84–92.
IEEE
[1]
S. de Jager et al., “No effect of acute balenine supplementation on maximal and submaximal exercise performance in recreational cyclists,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORT NUTRITION AND EXERCISE METABOLISM, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 84–92, 2023.
@article{01GQF8VVVY715SEBQFAP6VBC3F,
  abstract     = {{Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) and its methylated analogues anserine and balenine are highly concentrated endogenous dipeptides in mammalian skeletal muscle that are implicated in exercise performance. Balenine has a much better bioavailability and stability in human circulation upon acute ingestion, compared to carnosine and anserine. Therefore, ergogenic effects observed with acute carnosine and anserine supplementation may be even more pronounced with balenine. This study investigated whether acute balenine supplementation improves physical performance in four maximal and submaximal exercise modalities. A total of 20 healthy, active volunteers (14 males; six females) performed cycling sprints, maximal isometric contractions, a 4-km TT and 20-km TT following either preexercise placebo or 10 mg/kg of balenine ingestion. Physical, as well as mental performance, along with acid-base balance and glucose concentration were assessed. Balenine was unable to augment peak power (p = .3553), peak torque (p = .3169), time to complete the 4 km (p = .8566), nor 20 km time trial (p = .2660). None of the performances were correlated with plasma balenine or CN1 enzyme activity. In addition, no effect on pH, bicarbonate, and lactate was observed. Also, the supplement did not affect mental performance. In contrast, glucose remained higher during and after the 20 km time trial following balenine ingestion. In conclusion, these results overall indicate that the functionality of balenine does not fully resemble that of carnosine and anserine, since it was unable to elicit performance improvements with similar and even higher plasma concentrations.}},
  author       = {{de Jager, Sarah and Van Damme, Stefaan and De Baere, Siegrid and Croubels, Siska and Jäger, Ralf and Purpura, Martin and Lievens, Eline and Bourgois, Jan and Derave, Wim}},
  issn         = {{1526-484X}},
  journal      = {{INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORT NUTRITION AND EXERCISE METABOLISM}},
  keywords     = {{Nutrition and Dietetics,Orthopedics and Sports Medicine,General Medicine,Medicine (miscellaneous),Exercise physiology,(sports) nutrition,histidine-containing dipeptides,cycling time trial,ergogenic supplement,balenine ingestion}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{2}},
  pages        = {{84--92}},
  title        = {{No effect of acute balenine supplementation on maximal and submaximal exercise performance in recreational cyclists}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2022-0115}},
  volume       = {{33}},
  year         = {{2023}},
}

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