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Traditional shade coffee forest systems act as refuges for medium- and large-sized mammals as natural forest dwindles in Ethiopia

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Abstract
Ethiopian shade coffee plantations are well documented to be bird-friendly and act as refuges for disappearing tree species. The extent to which these plantations support mammal conservation, as well as mammal sensitivity to coffee intensification, remain little studied. We studied the distribution and diversity of mammals under three coffee management systems of differing intensities (i.e., semi-forest, semi-plantation, and plantation) and in nearby natural forests in Belete-Gera Forest Priority Area, southwestern Ethiopia. We detected mammals using 30 infrared camera traps at 90 stations for a total of 4142 camera days. We used the Shannon-Wiener diversity index for diversity analysis, generalized linear mixed model for comparison of independent detection, and non-metric multidimensional scaling to show the mammalian community composition. We recorded 8815 digital videos and a total of 23 mammal species. The overall species richness, diversity, and detection of mammals did not differ between the two traditional shade coffee management systems and the natural forest but was lower in the plantation coffee system. The mammal community composition also shows variation in resilience to coffee management intensity, with primates appearing to be generally more tolerant to management intensification. We ultimately show that traditionally managed Ethiopian shade coffee farms shelter diverse mammal communities, comparable to those in nearby natural forests. Therefore, supporting traditional coffee management practices and certifying them as mammal-friendly should be implemented as strategies for the conservation of mammals, as natural forests continue to decline in Ethiopia.
Keywords
Agroforestry, Camera trap, Medium-and-large sized mammals, Shade coffee, management, Sustainable agriculture, MANAGEMENT INTENSIFICATION, AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES, PRIMATE, CONSERVATION, SPECIES-DIVERSITY, PROTECTED AREA, CLOUD-FOREST, DUNG, BEETLE, RAIN-FOREST, BIODIVERSITY, HABITAT

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MLA
Etana, Behailu, et al. “Traditional Shade Coffee Forest Systems Act as Refuges for Medium- and Large-Sized Mammals as Natural Forest Dwindles in Ethiopia.” BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION, vol. 260, 2021, doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2021.109219.
APA
Etana, B., Atickem, A., Tsegaye, D., Bekele, A., De Beenhouwer, M., Hundera, K., … Stenseth, N. C. (2021). Traditional shade coffee forest systems act as refuges for medium- and large-sized mammals as natural forest dwindles in Ethiopia. BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION, 260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2021.109219
Chicago author-date
Etana, Behailu, Anagaw Atickem, Diress Tsegaye, Afework Bekele, Matthias De Beenhouwer, Kitessa Hundera, Luc Lens, Peter J. Fashing, and Nils Chr Stenseth. 2021. “Traditional Shade Coffee Forest Systems Act as Refuges for Medium- and Large-Sized Mammals as Natural Forest Dwindles in Ethiopia.” BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION 260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2021.109219.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Etana, Behailu, Anagaw Atickem, Diress Tsegaye, Afework Bekele, Matthias De Beenhouwer, Kitessa Hundera, Luc Lens, Peter J. Fashing, and Nils Chr Stenseth. 2021. “Traditional Shade Coffee Forest Systems Act as Refuges for Medium- and Large-Sized Mammals as Natural Forest Dwindles in Ethiopia.” BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION 260. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2021.109219.
Vancouver
1.
Etana B, Atickem A, Tsegaye D, Bekele A, De Beenhouwer M, Hundera K, et al. Traditional shade coffee forest systems act as refuges for medium- and large-sized mammals as natural forest dwindles in Ethiopia. BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION. 2021;260.
IEEE
[1]
B. Etana et al., “Traditional shade coffee forest systems act as refuges for medium- and large-sized mammals as natural forest dwindles in Ethiopia,” BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION, vol. 260, 2021.
@article{01GQCHBBPA6CZV4F9ZY07XPCEB,
  abstract     = {{Ethiopian shade coffee plantations are well documented to be bird-friendly and act as refuges for disappearing tree species. The extent to which these plantations support mammal conservation, as well as mammal sensitivity to coffee intensification, remain little studied. We studied the distribution and diversity of mammals under three coffee management systems of differing intensities (i.e., semi-forest, semi-plantation, and plantation) and in nearby natural forests in Belete-Gera Forest Priority Area, southwestern Ethiopia. We detected mammals using 30 infrared camera traps at 90 stations for a total of 4142 camera days. We used the Shannon-Wiener diversity index for diversity analysis, generalized linear mixed model for comparison of independent detection, and non-metric multidimensional scaling to show the mammalian community composition. We recorded 8815 digital videos and a total of 23 mammal species. The overall species richness, diversity, and detection of mammals did not differ between the two traditional shade coffee management systems and the natural forest but was lower in the plantation coffee system. The mammal community composition also shows variation in resilience to coffee management intensity, with primates appearing to be generally more tolerant to management intensification. We ultimately show that traditionally managed Ethiopian shade coffee farms shelter diverse mammal communities, comparable to those in nearby natural forests. Therefore, supporting traditional coffee management practices and certifying them as mammal-friendly should be implemented as strategies for the conservation of mammals, as natural forests continue to decline in Ethiopia.}},
  articleno    = {{109219}},
  author       = {{Etana, Behailu and  Atickem, Anagaw and  Tsegaye, Diress and  Bekele, Afework and  De Beenhouwer, Matthias and  Hundera, Kitessa and Lens, Luc and  Fashing, Peter J. and  Stenseth, Nils Chr}},
  issn         = {{0006-3207}},
  journal      = {{BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION}},
  keywords     = {{Agroforestry,Camera trap,Medium-and-large sized mammals,Shade coffee,management,Sustainable agriculture,MANAGEMENT INTENSIFICATION,AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES,PRIMATE,CONSERVATION,SPECIES-DIVERSITY,PROTECTED AREA,CLOUD-FOREST,DUNG,BEETLE,RAIN-FOREST,BIODIVERSITY,HABITAT}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{11}},
  title        = {{Traditional shade coffee forest systems act as refuges for medium- and large-sized mammals as natural forest dwindles in Ethiopia}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2021.109219}},
  volume       = {{260}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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