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Status and trends of physical activity surveillance, policy, and research in 164 countries : findings from the Global Observatory for Physical Activity - GoPA! 2015 and 2020 surveys

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Abstract
Background: Physical activity (PA) surveillance, policy, and research efforts need to be periodically appraised to gain insight into national and global capacities for PA promotion. The aim of this paper was to assess the status and trends in PA surveillance, policy, and research in 164 countries. Methods: We used data from the Global Observatory for Physical Activity (GoPA!) 2015 and 2020 surveys. Comprehensive searches were performed for each country to determine the level of development of their PA surveillance, policy, and research, and the findings were verified by the GoPA! Country Contacts. Trends were analyzed based on the data available for both survey years. Results: The global 5-year progress in all 3 indicators was modest, with most countries either improving or staying at the same level. PA surveillance, policy, and research improved or remained at a high level in 48.1%, 40.6%, and 42.1% of the countries, respectively. PA surveillance, policy, and research scores decreased or remained at a low level in 8.3%, 15.8%, and 28.6% of the countries, respectively. The highest capacity for PA promotion was found in Europe, the lowest in Africa and low-and lower-middle-income countries. Although a large percentage of the world's population benefit from at least some PA policy, surveillance, and research efforts in their countries, 49.6 million people are without PA surveillance, 629.4 million people are without PA policy, and 108.7 million live in countries without any PA research output. A total of 6.3 billion people or 88.2% of the world's population live in countries where PA promotion capacity should be significantly improved. Conclusion: Despite PA is essential for health, there are large inequalities between countries and world regions in their capacity to promote PA. Coordinated efforts are needed to reduce the inequalities and improve the global capacity for PA promotion.
Keywords
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, public health practice, measurement, health promotion, guidelines and recommendations, epidemiology

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MLA
Ramírez Varela, Andrea, et al. “Status and Trends of Physical Activity Surveillance, Policy, and Research in 164 Countries : Findings from the Global Observatory for Physical Activity - GoPA! 2015 and 2020 Surveys.” JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & HEALTH, vol. 20, no. 2, Human Kinetics, 2023, pp. 112–28, doi:10.1123/jpah.2022-0464.
APA
Ramírez Varela, A., Hallal, P. C., Mejía Grueso, J., Pedišić, Ž., Salvo, D., Nguyen, A., … Pratt, M. (2023). Status and trends of physical activity surveillance, policy, and research in 164 countries : findings from the Global Observatory for Physical Activity - GoPA! 2015 and 2020 surveys. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & HEALTH, 20(2), 112–128. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2022-0464
Chicago author-date
Ramírez Varela, Andrea, Pedro C. Hallal, Juliana Mejía Grueso, Željko Pedišić, Deborah Salvo, Anita Nguyen, Bojana Klepac, et al. 2023. “Status and Trends of Physical Activity Surveillance, Policy, and Research in 164 Countries : Findings from the Global Observatory for Physical Activity - GoPA! 2015 and 2020 Surveys.” JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & HEALTH 20 (2): 112–28. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2022-0464.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Ramírez Varela, Andrea, Pedro C. Hallal, Juliana Mejía Grueso, Željko Pedišić, Deborah Salvo, Anita Nguyen, Bojana Klepac, Adrian Bauman, Katja Siefken, Erica Hinckson, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Justin Richards, Elena Daniela Salih Khidir, Shigeru Inoue, Shiho Amagasa, Alejandra Jauregui, Marcelo Cozzensa da Silva, I-Min Lee, Melody Ding, Harold W. Kohl, Ulf Ekelund, Gregory W. Heath, Kenneth E. Powell, Charlie Foster, Aamir Raoof Memon, Abdoulaye Doumbia, Abdul Roof Rather, Abdur Razzaque, Adama Diouf, Adriano Akira Hino, Albertino Damasceno, Alem Deksisa Abebe, Alex Antonio Florindo, Alice Mannocci, Altyn Aringazina, Andrea Backović Juričan, Andrea Poffet, Andrew Decelis, Angela Carlin, Angelica Enescu, Angélica María Ochoa Avilés, Anna Kontsevaya, Annamaria Somhegyi, Anne Vuillemin, Asmaa El Hamdouchi, Asse Amangoua Théodore, Bojan Masanovic, Brigid M. Lynch, Catalina Medina, Cecilia del Campo, Chalchisa Abdeta, Changa Moreways, Chathuranga Ranasinghe, Christina Howitt, Christine Cameron, Danijel Jurakić, David Martinez-Gomez, Dawn Tladi, Debrework Tesfaye Diro, Deepti Adlakha, Dušan Mitić, Duško Bjelica, Elżbieta Biernat, Enock M. Chisati, Estelle Victoria Lambert, Ester Cerin, Eun-Young Lee, Eva-Maria Riso, Felicia Cañete Villalba, Felix Assah, Franjo Lovrić, Gerardo A. Araya-Vargas, Giuseppe La Torre, Gloria Isabel Niño Cruz, Gul Baltaci, Haleama Al Sabbah, Hanna Nalecz, Hilde Liisa Nashandi, Hyuntae Park, Inés Revuelta-Sánchez, Jackline Jema Nusurupia, Jaime Leppe Zamora, Jaroslava Kopcakova, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Jean-Michel Oppert, Jinlei Nie, John C. Spence, John Stewart Bradley, Jorge Mota, Josef Mitáš, Junshi Chen, Kamilah S Hylton, Karel Fromel, Karen Milton, Katja Borodulin, Keita Amadou Moustapha, Kevin Martinez-Folgar, Lara Nasreddine, Lars Breum Christiansen, Laurent Malisoux, Leapetswe Malete, Lorelie C. Grepo-Jalao, Luciana Zaranza Monteiro, Lyutha K. Al Subhi, Maja Dakskobler, Majed Alnaji, Margarita Claramunt Garro, Maria Hagströmer, Marie H. Murphy, Matthew  Mclaughlin, Mercedes Rivera-Morales, Mickey Scheinowitz, Mimoza Shkodra, Monika Piątkowska, Moushumi Chaudhury, Naif Ziyad Alrashdi, Nanette Mutrie, Niamh Murphy, Norhayati Haji Ahmad, Nour A. Obeidat, Nubia Yaneth Ruiz Gómez, Nucharapon Liangruenrom, Oscar Díaz Arnesto, Oscar Flores-Flores, Oscar Incarbone, Oyun Chimeddamba, Pascal Bovet, Pedro Magalhães, Pekka Jousilahti, Piyawat Katewongsa, Rafael Alexander Leandro Gómez, Rawan Awni Shihab, Reginald Ocansey, Réka Veress, Richard Marine, Rolando Carrizales-Ramos, Saad Younis Saeed, Said El-Ashker, Samuel Green, Sandra Kasoma, Santiago Beretervide, Se-Sergio Baldew, Selby Nichols, Selina Khoo, Seyed Ali Hosseini, Shifalika Goenka, Shima Gholamalishahi, Soewarta Kosen, Sofie Compernolle, Stefan Paul Enescu, Stevo Popovic, Susan Paudel, Susana Andrade, Sylvia Titze, Tamu Davidson, Theogene Dusingizimana, Thomas E. Dorner, Tracy L. Kolbe-Alexander, Tran Thanh Huong, Vanphanom Sychareun, Vera Jarevska-Simovska, Viliami Kulikefu Puloka, Vincent Onywera, Wanda Wendel-Vos, Yannis Dionyssiotis, and Michael Pratt. 2023. “Status and Trends of Physical Activity Surveillance, Policy, and Research in 164 Countries : Findings from the Global Observatory for Physical Activity - GoPA! 2015 and 2020 Surveys.” JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & HEALTH 20 (2): 112–128. doi:10.1123/jpah.2022-0464.
Vancouver
1.
Ramírez Varela A, Hallal PC, Mejía Grueso J, Pedišić Ž, Salvo D, Nguyen A, et al. Status and trends of physical activity surveillance, policy, and research in 164 countries : findings from the Global Observatory for Physical Activity - GoPA! 2015 and 2020 surveys. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & HEALTH. 2023;20(2):112–28.
IEEE
[1]
A. Ramírez Varela et al., “Status and trends of physical activity surveillance, policy, and research in 164 countries : findings from the Global Observatory for Physical Activity - GoPA! 2015 and 2020 surveys,” JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & HEALTH, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 112–128, 2023.
@article{01GMQ88KAN62KB35XQB4M53B8T,
  abstract     = {{Background: Physical activity (PA) surveillance, policy, and research efforts need to be periodically appraised to gain insight into national and global capacities for PA promotion. The aim of this paper was to assess the status and trends in PA surveillance, policy, and research in 164 countries. Methods: We used data from the Global Observatory for Physical Activity (GoPA!) 2015 and 2020 surveys. Comprehensive searches were performed for each country to determine the level of development of their PA surveillance, policy, and research, and the findings were verified by the GoPA! Country Contacts. Trends were analyzed based on the data available for both survey years. Results: The global 5-year progress in all 3 indicators was modest, with most countries either improving or staying at the same level. PA surveillance, policy, and research improved or remained at a high level in 48.1%, 40.6%, and 42.1% of the countries, respectively. PA surveillance, policy, and research scores decreased or remained at a low level in 8.3%, 15.8%, and 28.6% of the countries, respectively. The highest capacity for PA promotion was found in Europe, the lowest in Africa and low-and lower-middle-income countries. Although a large percentage of the world's population benefit from at least some PA policy, surveillance, and research efforts in their countries, 49.6 million people are without PA surveillance, 629.4 million people are without PA policy, and 108.7 million live in countries without any PA research output. A total of 6.3 billion people or 88.2% of the world's population live in countries where PA promotion capacity should be significantly improved. Conclusion: Despite PA is essential for health, there are large inequalities between countries and world regions in their capacity to promote PA. Coordinated efforts are needed to reduce the inequalities and improve the global capacity for PA promotion.}},
  author       = {{Ramírez Varela, Andrea and Hallal, Pedro C. and Mejía Grueso, Juliana and Pedišić, Željko and Salvo, Deborah and Nguyen, Anita and Klepac, Bojana and Bauman, Adrian and Siefken, Katja and Hinckson, Erica and Oyeyemi, Adewale L. and Richards, Justin and Salih Khidir, Elena Daniela and Inoue, Shigeru and Amagasa, Shiho and Jauregui, Alejandra and da Silva, Marcelo Cozzensa and Lee, I-Min and Ding, Melody and Kohl, Harold W. and Ekelund, Ulf and Heath, Gregory W. and Powell, Kenneth E. and Foster, Charlie and Memon, Aamir Raoof and Doumbia, Abdoulaye and Rather, Abdul Roof and Razzaque, Abdur and Diouf, Adama and Hino, Adriano Akira and Damasceno, Albertino and Abebe, Alem Deksisa and Florindo, Alex Antonio and Mannocci, Alice and Aringazina, Altyn and Juričan, Andrea Backović and Poffet, Andrea and Decelis, Andrew and Carlin, Angela and Enescu, Angelica and Ochoa Avilés, Angélica María and Kontsevaya, Anna and Somhegyi, Annamaria and Vuillemin, Anne and El Hamdouchi, Asmaa and Théodore, Asse Amangoua and Masanovic, Bojan and Lynch, Brigid M. and Medina, Catalina and del Campo, Cecilia and Abdeta, Chalchisa and Moreways, Changa and Ranasinghe, Chathuranga and Howitt, Christina and Cameron, Christine and Jurakić, Danijel and Martinez-Gomez, David and Tladi, Dawn and Diro, Debrework Tesfaye and Adlakha, Deepti and Mitić, Dušan and Bjelica, Duško and Biernat, Elżbieta and Chisati, Enock M. and Lambert, Estelle Victoria and Cerin, Ester and Lee, Eun-Young and Riso, Eva-Maria and Cañete Villalba, Felicia and Assah, Felix and Lovrić, Franjo and Araya-Vargas, Gerardo A. and La Torre, Giuseppe and Cruz, Gloria Isabel Niño and Baltaci, Gul and Al Sabbah, Haleama and Nalecz, Hanna and Nashandi, Hilde Liisa and Park, Hyuntae and Revuelta-Sánchez, Inés and Nusurupia, Jackline Jema and Zamora, Jaime Leppe and Kopcakova, Jaroslava and Brazo-Sayavera, Javier and Oppert, Jean-Michel and Nie, Jinlei and Spence, John C. and Bradley, John Stewart and Mota, Jorge and Mitáš, Josef and Chen, Junshi and Hylton, Kamilah S and Fromel, Karel and Milton, Karen and Borodulin, Katja and Moustapha, Keita Amadou and Martinez-Folgar, Kevin and Nasreddine, Lara and Christiansen, Lars Breum and Malisoux, Laurent and Malete, Leapetswe and Grepo-Jalao, Lorelie C. and Monteiro, Luciana Zaranza and Al Subhi, Lyutha K. and Dakskobler, Maja and Alnaji, Majed and Garro, Margarita Claramunt and Hagströmer, Maria and Murphy, Marie H. and Mclaughlin, Matthew  and Rivera-Morales, Mercedes and Scheinowitz, Mickey and Shkodra, Mimoza and Piątkowska, Monika and Chaudhury, Moushumi and Alrashdi, Naif Ziyad and Mutrie, Nanette and Murphy, Niamh and Ahmad, Norhayati Haji and Obeidat, Nour A. and Gómez, Nubia Yaneth Ruiz and Liangruenrom, Nucharapon and Arnesto, Oscar Díaz and Flores-Flores, Oscar and Incarbone, Oscar and Chimeddamba, Oyun and Bovet, Pascal and Magalhães, Pedro and Jousilahti, Pekka and Katewongsa, Piyawat and Gómez, Rafael Alexander Leandro and Shihab, Rawan Awni and Ocansey, Reginald and Veress, Réka and Marine, Richard and Carrizales-Ramos, Rolando and Saeed, Saad Younis and El-Ashker, Said and Green, Samuel and Kasoma, Sandra and Beretervide, Santiago and Baldew, Se-Sergio and Nichols, Selby and Khoo, Selina and Hosseini, Seyed Ali and Goenka, Shifalika and Gholamalishahi, Shima and Kosen, Soewarta and Compernolle, Sofie and Enescu, Stefan Paul and Popovic, Stevo and Paudel, Susan and Andrade, Susana and Titze, Sylvia and Davidson, Tamu and Dusingizimana, Theogene and Dorner, Thomas E. and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L. and Huong, Tran Thanh and Sychareun, Vanphanom and Jarevska-Simovska, Vera and Puloka, Viliami Kulikefu and Onywera, Vincent and Wendel-Vos, Wanda and Dionyssiotis, Yannis and Pratt, Michael}},
  issn         = {{1543-3080}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & HEALTH}},
  keywords     = {{Orthopedics and Sports Medicine,public health practice,measurement,health promotion,guidelines and recommendations,epidemiology}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{2}},
  pages        = {{112--128}},
  publisher    = {{Human Kinetics}},
  title        = {{Status and trends of physical activity surveillance, policy, and research in 164 countries : findings from the Global Observatory for Physical Activity - GoPA! 2015 and 2020 surveys}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2022-0464}},
  volume       = {{20}},
  year         = {{2023}},
}

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