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Search for neutrino emission from cores of Active Galactic Nuclei

(2022) PHYSICAL REVIEW D. 106(2).
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Abstract
The sources of the majority of the high-energy astrophysical neutrinos observed with the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole are unknown. So far, only a gamma-ray blazar was compellingly associated with the emission of high-energy neutrinos. In addition, several studies suggest that the neutrino emission from the gamma-ray blazar population only accounts for a small fraction of the total astrophysical neutrino flux. In this work we probe the production of high-energy neutrinos in the cores of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), induced by accelerated cosmic rays in the accretion disk region. We present a likelihood analysis based on eight years of IceCube data, searching for a cumulative neutrino signal from three AGN samples created for this work. The neutrino emission is assumed to be proportional to the accretion disk luminosity estimated from the soft X-ray flux. Next to the observed soft X-ray flux, the objects for the three samples have been selected based on their radio emission and infrared color properties. For the largest sample in this search, an excess of high-energy neutrino events with respect to an isotropic background of atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos is found, corresponding to a post-trial significance of 2.60$\sigma$. Assuming a power-law spectrum, the best-fit spectral index is $2.03^{+0.14}_{-0.11}$, consistent with expectations from particle acceleration in astrophysical sources. If interpreted as a genuine signal with the assumptions of a proportionality of X-ray and neutrino fluxes and a model for the sub-threshold flux distribution, this observation implies that at 100 TeV, 27$\%$ - 100$\%$ of the observed neutrinos arise from particle acceleration in the core of AGN.
Keywords
HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRINOS, GAMMA-RAY, LUMINOSITY, EVOLUTION, QUASARS, ICECUBE, MODEL, FLUX, AGN

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MLA
Abbasi, R., et al. “Search for Neutrino Emission from Cores of Active Galactic Nuclei.” PHYSICAL REVIEW D, vol. 106, no. 2, 2022, doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.106.022005.
APA
Abbasi, R., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., A. Aguilar, J., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., … Zhelnin, P. (2022). Search for neutrino emission from cores of Active Galactic Nuclei. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 106(2). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.106.022005
Chicago author-date
Abbasi, R., M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, J. M. Alameddine, et al. 2022. “Search for Neutrino Emission from Cores of Active Galactic Nuclei.” PHYSICAL REVIEW D 106 (2). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.106.022005.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Abbasi, R., M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, J. M. Alameddine, C. Alispach, A. A. Alves Jr., N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V. Basu, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, C. Bellenghi, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, M. Boddenberg, F. Bontempo, J. Borowka, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, B. Brinson, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, S. Browne, A. Burgman, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, M. A. Campana, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, K. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, C. Dappen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado López, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, M. A. DuVernois, E. Dvorak, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, A. T. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, T. Grégoire, S. Griswold, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, A. Haungs, D. Hebecker, K. Helbing, F. Henningsen, E. C. Hettinger, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J. P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, K. Kin, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, Y. Li, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, S. Mancina, I. C. Mariş, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, R. Naab, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, J. Necker, L. V. Nguyên, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, Bob Oeyen, A. Olivas, E. O’Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, L. Peters, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, S. Pieper, M. Pittermann, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, Alessio Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, P. B. Price, B. Pries, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, R. Reimann, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, Dirk Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, J. Saffer, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, S. Tilav, F. Tischbein, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, Stef Verpoest, C. Walck, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, S. Yoshida, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and P. Zhelnin. 2022. “Search for Neutrino Emission from Cores of Active Galactic Nuclei.” PHYSICAL REVIEW D 106 (2). doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.106.022005.
Vancouver
1.
Abbasi R, Ackermann M, Adams J, A. Aguilar J, Ahlers M, Ahrens M, et al. Search for neutrino emission from cores of Active Galactic Nuclei. PHYSICAL REVIEW D. 2022;106(2).
IEEE
[1]
R. Abbasi et al., “Search for neutrino emission from cores of Active Galactic Nuclei,” PHYSICAL REVIEW D, vol. 106, no. 2, 2022.
@article{01GJG0HSP3W48MMQMM08P2N17A,
  abstract     = {{The sources of the majority of the high-energy astrophysical neutrinos
observed with the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole are unknown. So
far, only a gamma-ray blazar was compellingly associated with the emission of
high-energy neutrinos. In addition, several studies suggest that the neutrino
emission from the gamma-ray blazar population only accounts for a small
fraction of the total astrophysical neutrino flux. In this work we probe the
production of high-energy neutrinos in the cores of Active Galactic Nuclei
(AGN), induced by accelerated cosmic rays in the accretion disk region. We
present a likelihood analysis based on eight years of IceCube data, searching
for a cumulative neutrino signal from three AGN samples created for this work.
The neutrino emission is assumed to be proportional to the accretion disk
luminosity estimated from the soft X-ray flux. Next to the observed soft X-ray
flux, the objects for the three samples have been selected based on their radio
emission and infrared color properties. For the largest sample in this search,
an excess of high-energy neutrino events with respect to an isotropic
background of atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos is found, corresponding
to a post-trial significance of 2.60$\sigma$. Assuming a power-law spectrum,
the best-fit spectral index is $2.03^{+0.14}_{-0.11}$, consistent with
expectations from particle acceleration in astrophysical sources. If
interpreted as a genuine signal with the assumptions of a proportionality of
X-ray and neutrino fluxes and a model for the sub-threshold flux distribution,
this observation implies that at 100 TeV, 27$\%$ - 100$\%$ of the observed
neutrinos arise from particle acceleration in the core of AGN.}},
  articleno    = {{022005}},
  author       = {{Abbasi, R. and Ackermann, M. and Adams, J. and A. Aguilar, J. and Ahlers, M. and Ahrens, M. and M. Alameddine, J. and Alispach, C. and A. Alves Jr., A. and M. Amin, N. and Andeen, K. and Anderson, T. and Anton, G. and Argüelles, C. and Ashida, Y. and Axani, S. and Bai, X. and Balagopal V., A. and Barbano, A. and W. Barwick, S. and Bastian, B. and Basu, V. and Baur, S. and Bay, R. and J. Beatty, J. and -H. Becker, K. and Becker Tjus, J. and Bellenghi, C. and BenZvi, S. and Berley, D. and Bernardini, E. and Z. Besson, D. and Binder, G. and Bindig, D. and Blaufuss, E. and Blot, S. and Boddenberg, M. and Bontempo, F. and Borowka, J. and Böser, S. and Botner, O. and Böttcher, J. and Bourbeau, E. and Bradascio, F. and Braun, J. and Brinson, B. and Bron, S. and Brostean-Kaiser, J. and Browne, S. and Burgman, A. and T. Burley, R. and S. Busse, R. and A. Campana, M. and G. Carnie-Bronca, E. and Chen, C. and Chen, Z. and Chirkin, D. and Choi, K. and A. Clark, B. and Clark, K. and Classen, L. and Coleman, A. and H. Collin, G. and M. Conrad, J. and Coppin, P. and Correa, P. and F. Cowen, D. and Cross, R. and Dappen, C. and Dave, P. and De Clercq, C. and J. DeLaunay, J. and Delgado López, D. and Dembinski, H. and Deoskar, K. and Desai, A. and Desiati, P. and D. de Vries, K. and de Wasseige, G. and de With, M. and DeYoung, T. and Diaz, A. and C. Díaz-Vélez, J. and Dittmer, M. and Dujmovic, H. and Dunkman, M. and A. DuVernois, M. and Dvorak, E. and Ehrhardt, T. and Eller, P. and Engel, R. and Erpenbeck, H. and Evans, J. and A. Evenson, P. and L. Fan, K. and R. Fazely, A. and Fedynitch, A. and Feigl, N. and Fiedlschuster, S. and T. Fienberg, A. and Filimonov, K. and Finley, C. and Fischer, L. and Fox, D. and Franckowiak, A. and Friedman, E. and Fritz, A. and Fürst, P. and K. Gaisser, T. and Gallagher, J. and Ganster, E. and Garcia, A. and Garrappa, S. and Gerhardt, L. and Ghadimi, A. and Glaser, C. and Glauch, T. and Glüsenkamp, T. and G. Gonzalez, J. and Goswami, S. and Grant, D. and Grégoire, T. and Griswold, S. and Günther, C. and Gutjahr, P. and Haack, C. and Hallgren, A. and Halliday, R. and Halve, L. and Halzen, F. and Ha Minh, M. and Hanson, K. and Hardin, J. and A. Harnisch, A. and Haungs, A. and Hebecker, D. and Helbing, K. and Henningsen, F. and C. Hettinger, E. and Hickford, S. and Hignight, J. and Hill, C. and C. Hill, G. and D. Hoffman, K. and Hoffmann, R. and Hokanson-Fasig, B. and Hoshina, K. and Huang, F. and Huber, M. and Huber, T. and Hultqvist, K. and Hünnefeld, M. and Hussain, R. and Hymon, K. and In, S. and Iovine, N. and Ishihara, A. and Jansson, M. and S. Japaridze, G. and Jeong, M. and Jin, M. and J. P. Jones, B. and Kang, D. and Kang, W. and Kang, X. and Kappes, A. and Kappesser, D. and Kardum, L. and Karg, T. and Karl, M. and Karle, A. and Katz, U. and Kauer, M. and Kellermann, M. and L. Kelley, J. and Kheirandish, A. and Kin, K. and Kintscher, T. and Kiryluk, J. and R. Klein, S. and Koirala, R. and Kolanoski, H. and Kontrimas, T. and Köpke, L. and Kopper, C. and Kopper, S. and J. Koskinen, D. and Koundal, P. and Kovacevich, M. and Kowalski, M. and Kozynets, T. and Kun, E. and Kurahashi, N. and Lad, N. and Lagunas Gualda, C. and L. Lanfranchi, J. and J. Larson, M. and Lauber, F. and P. Lazar, J. and W. Lee, J. and Leonard, K. and Leszczyńska, A. and Li, Y. and Lincetto, M. and R. Liu, Q. and Liubarska, M. and Lohfink, E. and J. Lozano Mariscal, C. and Lu, L. and Lucarelli, F. and Ludwig, A. and Luszczak, W. and Lyu, Y. and Y. Ma, W. and Madsen, J. and B. M. Mahn, K. and Makino, Y. and Mancina, S. and C. Mariş, I. and Martinez-Soler, I. and Maruyama, R. and Mase, K. and McElroy, T. and McNally, F. and V. Mead, J. and Meagher, K. and Mechbal, S. and Medina, A. and Meier, M. and Meighen-Berger, S. and Micallef, J. and Mockler, D. and Montaruli, T. and W. Moore, R. and Morse, R. and Moulai, M. and Naab, R. and Nagai, R. and Naumann, U. and Necker, J. and V. Nguyên, L. and Niederhausen, H. and U. Nisa, M. and C. Nowicki, S. and Obertacke Pollmann, A. and Oehler, M. and Oeyen, Bob and Olivas, A. and O'Sullivan, E. and Pandya, H. and V. Pankova, D. and Park, N. and K. Parker, G. and N. Paudel, E. and Paul, L. and Pérez de los Heros, C. and Peters, L. and Peterson, J. and Philippen, S. and Pieper, S. and Pittermann, M. and Pizzuto, A. and Plum, M. and Popovych, Y. and Porcelli, Alessio and Prado Rodriguez, M. and B. Price, P. and Pries, B. and T. Przybylski, G. and Raab, C. and Raissi, A. and Rameez, M. and Rawlins, K. and C. Rea, I. and Rehman, A. and Reichherzer, P. and Reimann, R. and Renzi, G. and Resconi, E. and Reusch, S. and Rhode, W. and Richman, M. and Riedel, B. and J. Roberts, E. and Robertson, S. and Roellinghoff, G. and Rongen, M. and Rott, C. and Ruhe, T. and Ryckbosch, Dirk and Rysewyk Cantu, D. and Safa, I. and Saffer, J. and E. Sanchez Herrera, S. and Sandrock, A. and Sandroos, J. and Santander, M. and Sarkar, S. and Sarkar, S. and Satalecka, K. and Schaufel, M. and Schieler, H. and Schindler, S. and Schmidt, T. and Schneider, A. and Schneider, J. and G. Schröder, F. and Schumacher, L. and Schwefer, G. and Sclafani, S. and Seckel, D. and Seunarine, S. and Sharma, A. and Shefali, S. and Silva, M. and Skrzypek, B. and Smithers, B. and Snihur, R. and Soedingrekso, J. and Soldin, D. and Spannfellner, C. and M. Spiczak, G. and Spiering, C. and Stachurska, J. and Stamatikos, M. and Stanev, T. and Stein, R. and Stettner, J. and Steuer, A. and Stezelberger, T. and Stürwald, T. and Stuttard, T. and W. Sullivan, G. and Taboada, I. and Ter-Antonyan, S. and Tilav, S. and Tischbein, F. and Tollefson, K. and Tönnis, C. and Toscano, S. and Tosi, D. and Trettin, A. and Tselengidou, M. and F. Tung, C. and Turcati, A. and Turcotte, R. and F. Turley, C. and P. Twagirayezu, J. and Ty, B. and A. Unland Elorrieta, M. and Valtonen-Mattila, N. and Vandenbroucke, J. and van Eijndhoven, N. and Vannerom, D. and van Santen, J. and Verpoest, Stef and Walck, C. and B. Watson, T. and Weaver, C. and Weigel, P. and Weindl, A. and J. Weiss, M. and Weldert, J. and Wendt, C. and Werthebach, J. and Weyrauch, M. and Whitehorn, N. and H. Wiebusch, C. and R. Williams, D. and Wolf, M. and Woschnagg, K. and Wrede, G. and Wulff, J. and W. Xu, X. and P. Yanez, J. and Yoshida, S. and Yu, S. and Yuan, T. and Zhang, Z. and Zhelnin, P.}},
  issn         = {{2470-0010}},
  journal      = {{PHYSICAL REVIEW D}},
  keywords     = {{HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRINOS,GAMMA-RAY,LUMINOSITY,EVOLUTION,QUASARS,ICECUBE,MODEL,FLUX,AGN}},
  language     = {{und}},
  number       = {{2}},
  pages        = {{14}},
  title        = {{Search for neutrino emission from cores of Active Galactic Nuclei}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.106.022005}},
  volume       = {{106}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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